The interview is probably the event that most lay people associate most directly with careers guidance. Many would be surprised, however, to learn of the variety of 'models' of interviewing that guidance practitioners may employ. Ten or fifteen years ago, the main differences in approach could be characterized quite simply: the choice was between a counseling-type interview using Rogerian relationship skills, and a content-oriented model where the aim was to obtain certain categories of information from the client and make recommendations as to the action he or she should take. Rodger's Seven-Point Plan (Rodger, 1952) was often used as a framework for this latter approach.
Guidance interviewing practice also varies between professional groups. It is dangerous to generalizes, but practitioners working in independent career counseling and outplacement agencies are more likely than other guidance workers to offer clients a battery of tests (which may include interest and personality inventories and aptitude tests) and to make recommendations based on interpretations of their results. Outplacement counselors are likely to focus on coaching and support in job hunting and also may be more prepared to devote more time to providing emotional support to clients who are recovering from the trauma of redundancy.
Major orientations and approaches to interviewing
Person-environment fit Seven-point plan (Rodger)
Congruence models (e.g. Holland)
Developmental Developmental careers counseling (Super)
Person-centered Client-centered counseling (Rogers)
Personal construct theory techniques
Goal-directed Social learning model (Krumboltz)
Skilled helper (Egan)
Interpersonal interaction models
RODGER'S SEVEN-POINT PLAN
1. Physical make-up Has he [sick] any defects of health or physique
that may be of occupational importance?
How agreeable are his appearance, his bearing and his speech?
2. Attainments What type of education has he had?
How well has he done educationally?
What occupational training and experience has he had already?
How well has he done occupationally?
3. General intelligence How much general intelligence can he display?
How much general intelligence does he ordinarily display?
4. Special aptitudes Has he any marked mechanical aptitude, manual dexterity, facility in the use of figures, talent for drawing or music?
5. Interests To what extent are his interests intellectual? Practical?
Practical-constructional? Physically active? Social? Artistic?
6. Disposition How acceptable does he make himself to other people?
Does he influence others?
Is he steady and dependable?
Is he self-reliant?
7. Circumstances What are his domestic circumstances?
What do the other members of the family do for a living?
Are there any special openings available for him?
One of the most influential and widely researched person-environment fit models in the United States is that of Holland (1973), who proposed that people seek occupational environments that are congruent with their personalities. Holland's theory of occupational choice states that:
1. People fall into six personality or interests types (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional).
2. Occupational environments can be classified in the same terms.
3. Individuals seek to achieve congruence between personality and environment.
4. Where congruence is achieved, optimum satisfaction and performance will result.
Anderson, J. R. (1985) Cognitive Psychology and its Implications (2nd ed), San Francisco, CA: Freeman.
Bacharach, S. B. and Lawler, E. J. (1980) Power and Politics in Organizations, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Ball, B. (1984) Careers Counseling in Practice, Lewes: Falmer.
Bedford, T. (1982a) Vocational Guidance Interviews: a Survey by the Careers Service Inspectorate, London: Careers Service Branch, Department of Employment.
Bedford, T. (1982b) Vocational Guidance Interviews Explored, London: Careers Service Branch, Department of Employment.
Holland, J. L. (1973) Making Vocational Choices: a Theory of Careers, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Holland, J. L. (1985a) The Self-Directed Search: Professional Manual, Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
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